Toe joint, bone and nerve disorders

Bunions

What is a bunion? A bunion is a painful bump on the side of the big toe joint. This is one of the most common conditions treated by podiatrists. It’s often associated with poorly fitted footwear or tight dress shoes and high heels. The bump is located on the side of the first of the long bones (metatarsals) down the inside of the foot, near the big toe. Sometimes, the great toe will overlap...

Charcot Joint Disease

Charcot joint disease was given its name by the French neurologist Jean-Marie Charcot in 1868. He noted a bizarre pattern of bone destruction in patients with tertiary syphilis and absent sensation. In 1936, William Jordan described a similar pattern in patients with diabetes. Theories as to the cause of the Charcot joint disease abound. However, certain predisposing factors appear to be...

Cocked Up Big Toe (Hallux Hammertoe)

The big toe, called the Hallux, is made up of two small bones called phalanges. This condition presents as a cocking up of the big toe at the joint between these two small bones. In the early stages of the condition the deformity is flexible, in later stages the deformity becomes rigid. It is caused by a variety conditions. Neurological diseases that cause muscle weakness or muscle imbalance in...

Gout

Gout is caused by abnormal metabolism of substances called purines that result in the accumulation of uric acid in the blood stream. Purines are a by-product of cell break down. When the excretion of the uric acid is hampered the accumulated uric acid in the blood stream causes crystalline deposits to form in joints or in the soft tissues. When this happens, there is a sudden onset of extreme...

Haglund’s Deformity (Pump Bump)

What is Haglund's Deformity?Haglund's Deformity is a bony enlargement of the back of the heel bone. Sometimes it's called “pump bump” because the deformity often occurs in women who wears pumps.CausesThe shape of your foot can contribute to the development of Haglund's Deformity. If you have high arches, a tight Achilles tendon, or a tendency to walk on the outside of your feet,...

Hallux Limitus (Big Toe Arthritis)

Stiffness of the big toe joint is termed Hallux Limitus. Hallux is the medical term for the big toe. When the big toe possesses no motion, it is termed Hallux Rigidus. To confuse the topic, the big toe joint may appear to have normal motion, but this motion can be limited when weight is on the foot and during the normal standing and walking. This is termed functional Hallux limitus, because it...

Hallux Varus

Hallux varus is a condition in which the great toe is pointing away from the 2nd toe. This can be considered the opposite of a hallux valgus or bunion deformity. In contrast to a bunion, however, the 1st metatarsal remains in its anatomical position while the great toe is deviated towards the middle of the body.Hallux varus most commonly occurs as a complication from bunion surgery. However,...

Hammertoes

What are hammertoes? An imbalance between the tendons located on the top and bottom of your toe can cause a contracture of the toes, a condition known as hammertoes. Hammertoes can be flexible or rigid. When rigid, they make it impossible to straighten your toe out by manipulating it.Hammertoes can cause you to develop corns on the top of your toe from constant rubbing against your shoe....

Neuromas

What is a neuroma? A neuroma is a swollen growth of nerve tissue, typically in bottom of the foot between the third and fourth toes. It’s often referred to as a pinched nerve or a nerve tumor. This growth is benign, but is painful and can lead to permanent nerve damage. Neuroma pain is often described as burning and tingling, sometimes accompanied by numbness in one or two toes....

Sesamoiditis

Sesamoid bones are commonly found in and around joints. While sesamoid bones can be found around any joint in the foot, they are consistently found within the joint of the great toe. The great toe joint contains 2 sesamoid bones, the tibial and fibular sesamoids.The sesamoids serve 2 very important functions based on their location: 1) they serve to protect the large tendon to the great toe,...

Subungual Exostosis (Bone Spur Under Toenail)

A subungual exostosis is a bony prominence that can occur under the toenail. They generally are a result of some form of trauma to the toe that results in the formation of bony irregularity or prominence. When they are symptomatic, removal of the spur is the treatment of choice. Additionally other small tumors called osteochondromas and enchondroma can also form in the bone beneath the toenail...

Tailor's Bunion - Bunionette

A tailor's bunion is a common condition of the foot that often leads to discomfort and pain when wearing shoes. This condition is frequently progressive and becomes worse with time. Anatomically, the toes are connected to long bones in the mid-foot called metatarsals. The tailor's bunion is a prominence or enlargement of the head of the fifth metatarsal. The cause of the tailor's bunion is...

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome is due to compression of a nerve called the Posterior Tibial Nerve.The nerve passes into the foot from around the inside of the ankle just below the ankle bone. Just beyond this point, the nerve enters the foot by passing between a muscle and a bone in the foot. This area is called the Tarsal Tunnel. The Posterior Tibial Nerve is the largest nerve that enters the foot....